questa usask enzie articles The history of computers in education has been variously characterized as an “accidental revolution” or “unthinking man and his thinking machines.” Others have said that the computer revolution has changed the adage that “necessity is the mother of invention” to “in a computer world, invention is the mother of necessity.” However characterized, it is clear that innovators in this field have created some of the most provocative and stimulating ideas in the history of education. What follows is a brief chronological history of some of the more interesting ideas and developments. Broadly speaking, the two major functions of education are to transmit the culture, values and lessons of the past to the current generation; and to prepare our children for the world in which they will live. Preparing children for the world in which they will live is becoming more difficult than ever. In retrospect, there has been a confluence of changes that have significantly impacted the direction of modern education. Modern, high-speed computers and telecommunications have facilitated the rapid movement of financial resources, goods and services, and have created an interdependence among the world’s economies. To benefit from these markets, nations must be competitive, and to be competitive they must have a well-educated work force. New, science-based, information industries are emerging in which knowledge and human capital are as important as industrial plants. Daniel Bell says a major characteristic of these industries is that they derive from work in theoretical science and are dependent on the codification of theoretical knowledge. The significance of this development is that if we choose to maintain our current standard of living, our knowledge workers must compete in an international market and must have a good understanding of science. We are experiencing a scientific information explosion of unprecedented proportions. Today, scientists and engineers use computers to access thousands of rapidly growing data bases that store numbers, words, maps, chemical and physical structures; and they search them millions of times a year. The base of scientific knowledge today is huge. It is estimated that it would take 22 centuries to read the annual biomedical research literature or seven centuries to read a year’s chemical literature. Not only is the volume of new information large, but it is growing exponentially. Rapid changes in many fields are making basic knowledge and skills obsolete. Knowledge is continually being modified and basic concepts and theories are being revised. New theories emerge as new discoveries offer new ways of looking at the data. Disciplines are merging and hyphenated sub-disciplines are being formed. Herbert Simon, Nobel Laureate, observed that the developments in science and information processing technologies have changed the meaning of the verb, “to know.” It used to mean “having information stored in one’s memory.” It now means the process of having access to information and knowing how to use it. There has been a major paradigm shift in education from theories of “learning” to theories of “cognition.” Cognitive science approaches teaching and learning in a different way. It addresses how the human, as an information processor, functions and uses information. Rather than focusing on teaching facts through expository lectures or demonstrations, the emphasis is, instead, on developing higher-order, thinking and problem-solving skills. The cognitive approach is important because it recognizes human information processing strengths and weaknesses, and the limits of human perception and memory in coping with the information explosion. It focuses, instead, organizing information to fit human capacity, and has changed the emphasis in education from learning to thinking. The launching of Sputnik, an unmanned Soviet satellite, in 1957 stirred national interest in educational reform. Thus began what has been called the “golden age” of education. Major national efforts were made to reform education. While many of the problems in education were not new, other new and different demands were changing the basic structure of education. First, there was a change in national philosophy from a position of making mass education available to many to a challenge to provide education for all. Second, we were preparing children for a new type of society that did not yet exist. Third, since people were now living significantly longer, formal education could not end with a high school or even a college degree. This paper will look to understand the functions of the professionals in Educational Technology from its beginnings up to today. As Educational Technologists, does our own lack of definition for what we do contribute to a lack of understanding by the public? If so, how does this affect what we do? Part 1 presents a brief history of the field. Part 2 explains job descriptions and some resources for finding work in the profession of Educational Technology followed by a summary conclusion. It would seem logical at the beginning of a discussion about Educational Technology to present a definition of it. Indeed, there have been many definitions suggested based on many issues and much research, and yet ET suffers from an identity crisis. Is it a process? A product? The point of this paper is not to attempt to write the ultimate definition, but rather to try to understand the scope of Educational Technology as a process, based on what its practitioners literally do. A complete understanding must begin with a brief description of what its practitioners have done in the past. Part 1: A Brief History: If a generic view of technology is taken, it could be argued that whenever a systematic plan is developed and carried out in order to successfully communicate facts, ideas, beliefs, behaviors, or knowledge, the process of educational technology has occurred. Although technology must have been taking place since the beginning of time, general recognition and documenting of it in education began in the 5th century B.C. with the Elder Sophists. The Elder Sophists were a group of ancient Greeks who believed that knowledge helped society evolve slowly but progressively toward an egalitarian and democratic state where morality and law were determined by societal consensus, rather than divine authority or a priori absolutes. The Sophists were first to use the teaching technology of group discussion or “Sophistic dialogue”. The Sophistic methods influenced European education until the 11th century when Abelard’s Scholastic method was developed. At this time, society was becoming generally more skeptical and less willing to accept things at face value, especially in the area of religion. Abelard felt any subject or thought could be analyzed for the purposes of understanding, verification, or qualification so he developed 158 questions about theological writings and a procedure for analyzing the material. The Scholastic method, later revised by St. Thomas Aquinas, was an inquiry method where the learner continually questioned material and postulated theses which could then be proven or rejected. In the 17th century, the technological advancement of the printing press affected educational technology by shifting theories of education toward empiricism. Johann Comenius’ Orbitus Pictus was the first use of a printed book to help teach. This is perhaps the beginning of the confusion between ET as a process and ET as a medium. Comenius designed his book as an instructional aid to help sequence content from simple to complex, according to the natural stages of development of each learner, a theory which was reiterated in the 18th century by Jean Jacques Rousseau’s educational essay Emile. Later in the 17th century, John Locke’s tabula rasa (blank slate) theory proposed a shift in instructional beliefs, seeing the process of learning more akin to habit formation than as an intellectual exercise. Locke’s theory could be seen as a forerunner to B. F. Skinner’s behaviour modification theories, appearing almost two hundred years later. Around the beginning of the 1800′s, two significant educational developments occurred in Germany. The first systems approach to instruction was designed by Johann Friedrich Herbart as a four step learning plan: Herbart’s discussions of how sensory information was transformed, organized, stored, and related to new experiences were unique and laid the foundation for a modern psychology of perception. (Saettler 1998 p.52) Around the same time as Herbart another German named Friedrich Froebel presented his philosophy that education should nurture children’s growth of creativity, socialization, self-motivation and activity, and motor skills. Froebel developed the kindergarten system to address these goals, comparing the educator’s role to that of a gardener. One of the first influential works linking education with science was the 1886 Teacher’s Handbook of Psychology written by James Sully of Scotland. He believed that successful instruction should take into account the general nature of psychological principles and systematically apply them in practical ways. At the turn of the twentieth century the pace of educational technology, as with technology in general, began to quicken yet many of the theories put forth in the last hundred years are deeply rooted in the past. The main principles of Maria Montessori’s methods of the early 1900′s included adapting and sequencing content for each individual learner and complete freedom for learners with an emphasis on education through all the senses. The following decade witnessed the work of Edward Thorndike. Thorndike purported that schools should provide experiences that “pursue prespecified, socially useful goals” (Shrock 1995), a philosophy that was furthered by others such as Franklin Bobbitt, and Mary Ward and Frederic Burk whose instruction plan of the early 1920′s at San Francisco State Normal School was one of the first to be characterized by clearly pre-defined objectives and individualized instruction. Later in the United States two associates of Burk’s, Carleton Washburne and Helen Parkhurst, established the Winnetka Plan and the Dalton Plan respectively, which also centered on objective driven, mastery learning using self instructional materials allowing students to work at their own pace with minimum teacher direction. These early plans of the 20th century influenced the work of Skinner and his famous “Skinner Box” of the 1950′s. In 1933 Ralph Tyler, while working on a study from Ohio State University, developed a method for measuring the effectiveness of the intended learning outcomes (objectives). Tyler qualified these outcomes based on students’ behavior thereby created the behavioral objectives that are used today in instructional design. Tyler also made another contribution to modern day instructional design methods. He used the results of his behavioral objective assessments to continually revise the curricula of the study until desired achievement levels were attained — what we now call on-going or formative evaluation. The onset of World War II introduced a huge instructional problem: how could thousands of military personnel be quickly and effectively trained ?The answer at the time was an enormous global influx of mediated learning material: film, slides, photographs, audio tape, print material, and more. As a result a need was created for professionals with expertise in education to work with Quickest Way to Lose Weight subject matter experts and media producers to help create the materials and oversee their implementation. The war experience raised the profile of mediated education showing the world what could be achieved with well funded research and development efforts in education. Critics, however, asked the question whose answer seems to be as far away now as it was then: “Was the war training effort simply using sophisticated media to deliver unchanged instructional strategies, or did the design and implementation of the mediated learning itself signal an advancement in educational technology?” The end of World War II does not bring the history of educational technology quite up to date but from this time on there seemed to be a polarization of the field into two camps: the practical based audio-visual camp and the other more theory driven camp who followed a more scientific, systems approach to education. Both philosophies found acceptance and prospered even though they seemed to directly contradict each other. Audiovisual instruction, exemplified by the emergence of television, targeted a mass audience while programmed learning was designed specifically for individualized instruction. But in the 1960s the American Department of Audiovisual Instruction (DAVI), under the leadership of Dr. James Finn, published several seminal works in attempts to progress the Audiovisual field past a simple focus on products and toward including systematic design and assessment principles in the development of those products. In his forward to one DAVI publication, Teaching Machines and Programmed Learning, Finn states: …the audiovisual professional, as a technologist of the teaching profession, must relate to fields like psychology exactly as the medical doctor relates to his basic sciences. (Finn 1960) The editors of Teaching Machines and Programmed Learning , Robert Glaser and Arthur Lumsdaine, agreed: It seems to us that numerous contributors whose writings have produced this volume have reflected one dominant idea.This is the concept that the processes of teaching and learning can be made an explicit subject matter for scientific study, on the basis of which a technology of instruction can be developed. (p.563) …As we learn more about learning, teaching can become more and more an explicit technology which can itself be definitively taught. (Lumsdaine and Glaser p.564) The basis for consistent improvement in educational methods is a systematic translation of the techniques and findings of the experimental science of human learning into the practical development of an moving and relocation instructional technology. (Lumsdaine and Glaser p.572) Later publications of the DAVI confirmed the push toward a merging of the audiovisual and theory based camps. 1963′s The Changing Role of the Audiovisual Process in Education: A Definition and a Business Intelligence Software Glossary of Related Terms defined campervan insurance audiovisual communications as: (a) the study of the unique and relative strengths of both pictorial and nonrepresentational messages which may be employed in the learning process for any purpose; and (b) the structuring and baby gift baskets systematizing of messages by men and instruments in an educational environment. These undertakings include the planning, selection, management, and utilization of both components and Diamond Engagement Rings entire instructional systems. (DAVI 1963) As we follow the history of ET it is clear that many changes have occurred yet similarities in general philosophies of Houston Personal Injury Lawyer education can also be seen carried over from one century to the next and spreading around the world. In North America in 1971 DAVI changed its name to the Loans For Bad Credit Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) to reflect changes in its perspective of the field of Educational Technology. Although efforts car hire gatwick of the AECT and others to merge practical and theoretical viewpoints have helped create a paradigm shift in ET practice over the past 30 years, there still remains reverse phone lookup clearly drawn lines and resulting communication gaps between proponents of each philosophy. The internet has given us many gifts throughout the years – from Fitted Wardrobes music and video game codes to not so G-rated material. Therefore, it is no surprise that e-learning has made such a big splash in the web world. Within the past ten years, online golf swing education and internet training has provided many people with a new incentive to learn. During the early 80′s, e-training was just starting to become a potential creation. Companies hovercraft for sale and educational institutes were strictly hiring instructors to train their students. This was used car prices because computers were only beginning to grow, therefore making it difficult to come up with any other plan. These instructors were great at the time because it allowed training to be very hands on, especially since students were able to interact with their classmates and visually see the lessons. However, the problem with having just instructors was that there was a lot of blank time in between. Students were not being able to learn the material on their own time, thus difficulty set in when training with hoards of other people. Luckily, as the computer industry started to expand, e-training was becoming a reality. For the next ten years, multimedia was at everyone’s fingertips. Companies were just starting to use PowerPoint; a program that allowed people to create visually enhanced presentations. Video games and other multimedia programs were also popping up, thus resulting in a technology overhaul. As these advances continued, online education was only a step away. The first type of online education was in the mid 1990′s. This was when the internet was a great success, and multimedia was being taken to another level. The first few e-training companies dedicated their services to mainly businesses who did not want to hire trainers. Although the online education courses were great for new employees who needed training, it was only the beginning of an uphill process. Education online was very slow, as pictures were small and the entire course was text based. Nevertheless, it was beginning to catch the eye of many. As the 1990′s quickly ended, the millennium marked an entirely new period for technology. E-learning was finally on the map as online education courses were now very popular at colleges and businesses. Great streaming media, online video access, and fast web site servers made it possible for online education to make quite a splash. Students were also now able to learn from their homes during their own time, since working a job and going to school was quite a difficult task. Today, online education has come a long way. Instructors are now being hired to solely teach online, which usually consists of being filmed for lesson videos. Companies are also hiring these online education programs, since a training session can not only be quick, but also be accessed at any time of the day or night. For many, it is a great opportunity because it gives us all more knowledge. We not only are able to get college degrees through this type of e-learning, but we also can have a life, without having to stay at the office overnight just to learn some material. Natalie Aranda writes on technology, learning and education. The first type of online education was in the mid 1990’s. This was when the internet was a great success, and multimedia was being taken to another level. The first few e-training companies dedicated their services to mainly businesses who did not want to hire trainers. Today, Computer training cd and web-based trainng are widely used for many large corporations for software training, sales training and more. Educational technology (also called learning technology) is the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using and managing appropriate technological processes and resources.”The term educational technology is often associated with, and encompasses, instructional theory and learning theory. While instructional technology covers the processes and systems of learning and instruction, educational technology includes other systems used in the process of developing human capability. Educational Technology includes, but is not limited to, software, hardware, as well as Internet applications and activities. But there is still debate on what these terms mean. Educational technology is most simply and comfortably defined as an array of tools that might prove helpful in advancing student learning. Educational Technology relies on a broad definition of the word “technology”. Technology can refer to material objects of use to humanity, such as machines or hardware, but it can also encompass broader themes, including systems, methods of organization, and techniques. Some modern tools include but are not limited to overhead projectors, laptop computers, and calculators. Newer tools such as “smartphones” and games (both online and offline) are beginning to draw serious attention for their learning potential. Those who employ educational technologies to explore ideas and communicate meaning are learners or teachers. Consider the Handbook of Human Performance Technology.The word technology for the sister fields of Educational and Human Performance Technology means “applied science.” In other words, any valid and reliable process or procedure that is derived from basic research using the “scientific method” is considered a “technology.” Educational or Human Performance Technology may be based purely on algorithmic or heuristic processes, but neither necessarily implies physical technology. The word technology, comes from the Greek “Techne” which means craft or art. Another word “technique”, with the same origin, also may be used when considering the field Educational technology. So Educational technology may be extended to include the techniques of the educator. A classic example of an Educational Psychology text is Bloom’s 1956 book, Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.[4] Bloom’s taxonomy is helpful when designing learning activities to keep in mind what is expected of—and what are the learning goals for—learners. However, Bloom’s work does not explicitly deal with educational technology per se and is more concerned with pedagogical strategies. According to some, an Educational Technologist is someone who transforms basic educational and psychological research into an evidence-based applied science (or a technology) of learning or instruction. Educational Technologists typically have a graduate degree (Master’s, Doctorate, Ph.D., or D.Phil.) in a field related to educational psychology, educational media, experimental psychology, cognitive psychology or, more purely, in the fields of Educational, Instructional or Human Performance Technology or Instructional (Systems) Design. But few of those listed below as theorists would ever use the term “educational technologist” as a term to describe themselves, preferring terms like “educator”.[citation needed] The transformation of educational technology from a cottage industry to a profession is discussed by Shurville, Browne, and Whitaker.  Three main theoretical schools or philosophical frameworks have been present in the educational technology literature. These are Behaviorism, Cognitivism and Constructivism. Each of these schools of thought are still present in today’s literature but have evolved as the Psychology literature has evolved. This theoretical framework was developed in the early 20th century with the animal learning experiments of Ivan Pavlov, Edward Thorndike, Edward C. Tolman, Clark L. Hull, B.F. Skinner and many others. Many psychologists used these theories to describe and experiment with human learning. While still very useful this philosophy of learning has lost favor with many educators. B.F. Skinner wrote extensively on improvements of teaching based on his functional analysis of Verbal Behavior, and wrote “The Technology of Teaching” an attempt to dispel the myths underlying contemporary education, as well as promote his system he called programmed instruction. Ogden Lindsley also developed the Celeration learning system similarly based on behavior analysis but quite different from Keller’s and Skinner’s models. Cognitive science has changed how educators view learning. Since the very early beginning of the Cognitive Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s, learning theory has undergone a great deal of change. Much of the empirical framework of Behaviorism was retained even though a new paradigm had begun. Cognitive theories look beyond behavior to explain brain-based learning. Cognitivists consider how human memory works to promote learning. After memory theories like the Atkinson-Shiffrin memory model and Baddeley’s Working memory model were established as a theoretical framework in Cognitive Psychology, new cognitive frameworks of learning began to emerge during the 1970s, 80s, solar power systems and 90s. It is important to note that Computer Science and Information Technology have had a major influence on Cognitive Science theory. The Cognitive concepts of working memory (formerly known as short term memory) and long term wholesale silver jewellery memory have been facilitated by research and technology from the field of Computer Science. Another major influence on the field of Cognitive Science is Noam Chomsky. Today pulse oximeter researchers are concentrating on topics like Cognitive load and Information Processing Theory. Constructivism is a learning theory or educational philosophy that many educators began to consider in fat burning furnace the 1990s. One of the primary tenets of this philosophy is that learners construct free stuff their own meaning from new information, as they interact with reality or others with different perspectives. Constructivist learning environments require students to utilize their prior knowledge and experiences to formulate new, related, and/or adaptive concepts in learning. Under this framework the role of the teacher becomes that of a facilitator, Presidente Prudente providing guidance so that learners can construct their own knowledge. Constructivist educators must make sure that the prior learning experiences are appropriate and related to the concepts being taught. Jonassen (1997) suggests “well-structured” learning environments are useful for novice learners and that “ill-structured” environments are Debt Help only useful for more advanced learners. Educators utilizing technology when teaching with a constructivist perspective should choose technologies that reinforce prior preowned golf clubs learning perhaps in a problem-solving environment. Connectivism is “a learning theory for the digital age,” and has been developed by George Siemens and Stephen Downes based on loans bad credit their analysis of the limitations of behaviourism, cognitivism and constructivism to explain the effect technology has had on how we live, how we communicate, and how cash advance we learn. Donald G. Perrin, Executive Editor of the International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning says the theory “combines relevant elements of many pyxism learning theories, social structures, and technology to create a powerful theoretical construct for learning in the digital age.” Problem Based Learning and Inquiry-based learning are active learning educational technologies used to facilitate auto glass mn learning. Technology which includes physical and process applied science can be incorporated into project, problem, inquiry-based learning as they all have a similar educational philosophy. All louis vuitton handbags three are student centered, ideally involving real-world scenarios in which students are actively engaged in critical thinking activities. The process that students are encouraged to Tax Attorney pointing employ (as long as it is based on empirical research) is considered to be a technology. Classic examples of technologies used by teachers and Educational Technologists include Bloom’s Taxonomy and Internet Income Instructional Design. This is an area Enlarged Prostate where new thinkers are coming to the forefront everyday. Many of the ideas spread from theorists, researchers, and experts through their blogs. Extensive lists of educational bloggers by area best acne treatment of interest are available at Steve Hargadon’s “SupportBloggers” site or at the “movingforward” wiki started by Scott McLeod. Many of these blogs Car Share are recognized by their peers each year through the edublogger awards.Web 2.0 technologies have led to a huge increase in the amount of information available on this topic and the number of educators formally and informally discussing it. Most listed below have been around for revitol hair removal cream more than a decade, however, and few new thinkers mentioned above are listed here.  Educational technology is intended to improve education how to get your ex boyfriend back over what it would be without technology. Some of the claimed benefits are listed below: Easy-to-access course materials. Instructors can post the course kids bedroom furniture material or important information on a course website, which means students can study at a time and location they prefer and can obtain the study material very quickly Student motivation. Computer-based instruction can give instant feedback to students and save marriage explain correct answers. Moreover, a computer is patient and non-judgmental, which can give the student motivation to continue learning. According to James Kulik, who studies the effectiveness of computers used for instruction, students usually learn more in less time when receiving Meditation for beginners computer-based instruction and they like classes more and develop more positive attitudes toward computers in computer-based classes Wide participation. Learning material can be used for long distance marketing company learning and are accessible to a wider audience Improved student writing. It is convenient for students to edit their written work on word processors, which can, in turn, improve the quality of their writing. According to green marketing some studies, the students are better at critiquing and editing written work that is exchanged over a computer network with students they know Subjects made easier to learn. Many different types of educational software are designed and developed to help children or teenagers to learn specific subjects. Examples include pre-school software, computer simulators, and graphics software A structure that is more amenable to measurement and improvement of outcomes. With proper structuring it can become easier to monitor and maintain student work while also quickly gauging modifications to the instruction necessary to enhance student learning. Although technology in the classroom does have many benefits, there are clear drawbacks as well. Lack of proper training, limited access to sufficient quantities of a technology, and the extra time required for many implementations of technology are just a few of the reasons that technology is often not used extensively in the classroom. Similar to learning a new task or trade, special training is vital to ensuring the effective integration of classroom technology. Since technology is not the end goal of education, but rather a means by which it can be accomplished, educators must have a good grasp of the technology being used and its advantages over more traditional methods. If there is a lack in either of these areas, technology will be seen as a hindrance and not a benefit to the goals of teaching. Another difficulty is introduced when cars forum access to a sufficient quantity of a resource is limited. This is often seen when the quantity of computers or digital cameras for classroom use is not enough to Green Certification meet the needs of an entire classroom. It also occurs in less noticed forms such as limited access for technology exploration because of the high cost of technology and the fear of damages. In other cases, the inconvenience of resource placement is a hindrance, such as having to transport a classroom to a computer lab instead of having in-classroom computer access by means of technology such as laptop carts. Technology implementation can also be time consuming. There may be an initial setup or training time cost inherent in the use of certain technologies. Even with these tasks accomplished, technology failure may occur during the activity and as a result teachers must have an alternative lesson ready. Another major issue arises because of the evolving nature of technology. New resources have to be designed and distributed whenever the technological platform has been changed. Finding quality materials to support classroom objectives after such Meditation changes is often difficult even after they exist in sufficient quanitity and teachers must design these resources on their own Research from the Alberta Initiative for School Improvement (AISI)  indicates that inquiry and project-based approaches, combined with a focus on curriculum, effectively supports the infusion of educational technologies into the learning and teaching process. There are many kinds of computer and non-computer technologies currently in use in traditional classrooms. Among these are: Computer in the PLR Articles Classroom: Having a computer in the classroom is an asset to any teacher. With a computer in the classroom, teachers are able to demonstrate a new lesson, present new material, illustrate how to use new programs, and show new websites. Class Website: What better way to display your student’s work, than to create a web page designed just for your class. Once a web page is designed, teachers can post army fancy dress homework assignments, student work, famous quotes, trivia games, and so much more. In current day society, children know how to use the computer and cheap car insurance navigate their way through a website, so why not give them one where they can be a published author. Just be careful as most districts maintain strong policies to manage official project management websites for a school or classroom. Class Blogs and Wikis: These are some of a variety of Web 2.0 tools that are currently being implemented in the classroom. Blogs allow for stickers students to maintain a running dialogue, like a journal, of thoughts, ideas, and assignments that also provide for student comment and reiterative reflection. Wikis are deal of the day more group focused to allow multiple members of the group to edit a single document and create a truly collaborative and carefully edited finished product. Wireless Classroom Microphones: Noisy daily deals classrooms are a daily occurrence, and with the help of microphones, students are able to hear their teachers clearer. Children learn better when they hear the teacher clearly. The benefit for teachers seo services is that they no longer lose their voices at the end of the day. Mobile devices: Mobile devices such as clickers or smartphone can be cna certification used to enhance the experience in the classroom by providing the possibility for professors to get feedback. (read more in the article MLearning). SmartBoards: An interactive medical assistant training whiteboard that provides touch control of computer applications. Online Media: Streamed video websites can be utilized to enhance a classroom free website templates
lesson (e.g. United Streaming, Teacher Tube, etc.) There are many other tools being utilized depending on the local school board and fund availability. These may include: free web templates digital cameras, video cameras, interactive whiteboard tools, document cameras, or LCD projectors. In its broadest sense, e-assessment is the use of Local Realtors information technology for any assessment-related activity. T1 line This definition embraces a wide range of student activity ranging from the use of a word processor to on-screen testing. Due to its obvious similarity to e-learning, the purity rings term e-assessment is becoming widely used as a generic term to describe the use of computers within the assessment process. Specific types of e-assessment include computerized adaptive testing and computerized classification testing. E-assessment weight benches can be used to assess cognitive and practical abilities. Cognitive abilities are assessed using e-testing software; practical abilities are buy Twitter followers assessed using e-portfolios or simulation software. An e-testing system designed to focus on lower level associations comprises two components: (1) an assessment engine; and (2) an item bank. An assessment engine comprises the hardware and software required to create and deliver a test. Most e-testing engines run on standard hardware so the key characteristic is the software’s functionality. There is a wide range of software packages. The software does not include the questions themselves; these are provided by an item bank. Once created, the engine uses the item bank to generate a test. Traditional paper-and-pencil testing is similar, but the test is pulled from the bank at only one time, when it is sent to publishing. The creation of the item bank is more costly and time consuming than the installation and configuration of the assessment engine. This is due to the fact that assessment engines can be bought “off the shelf” whereas an item bank must be Free iPhone 4 developed for each specific application. An e-assessment system designed to focus on more sophisticated forms of knowledge requires some sort of interactive activity article submission and a system for inviting students to reason or solve problems around that activity. One influential program of research is known as Evidence Centered Design, or ECD. ECD learn forex involves the use of Bayesian Inference Nets to create a sophisticated model of student cognition, and a set of activities or problems that students work on that allow the system to forex trading system estimate the individuals understanding of the particular domain. E-assessment is becoming widely used. It has many advantages over traditional (paper-based) forex course assessment. The advantages include: greater storage efficiency – tens of thousands of answer scripts can be stored on a server compared to the physical space required women seeking men for paper scripts enhanced question styles which incorporate interactivity and multimedia. There are also disadvantages. E-assessment systems are expensive to establish car insurance and not suitable for every type of assessment (such as extended response questions). The main expense is not technical; it is the cost of producing high quality assessment items – although auto insurance this cost is identical when using paper-based assessment. The best examples follow a Formative Assessment structure and are called “Online Formative Assessment”. This home insurance involves making an initial formative assessment by sifting out the incorrect answers. The author/teacher will then explain what the pupil should have done with hair loss treatment each question. It will then give the pupil at least one practice at each slight variation of sifted out questions. This is the formative learning stage. The next stage is to make Gas Fire Pit a Summative Assessment by a new set of questions only covering the topics previously taught. Some will take this even further and repeat the cycle such as BOFA Online 11 best acne treatment plus papers which is aimed at the eleven plus exam set in the UK. In order to create a mechanism for the sharing of high quality assessment items, global seo company standards have emerged. The IMS Question and Test Interoperability specification (QTI) provides a common format for describing and distributing question items across disparate systems. An ricostruzione unghie area of E-assessment that has seen extensive growth in recent years is the use of hand held student response devices (often referred to as clickers or turf supplies voting devices). These allow a teacher to carry out whole group assessments, polls and surveys quickly and easily. They use either radio or infra red to communicate with a Table Tennis Table central hub that is usually attached to a computer. In many school classrooms these devices may also be used in combination with an interactive whiteboard. Various stamped concrete fort worth terms are used to describe the use of a computer for assessment purposes. These include: Computer-Assisted Assessment or Computer-Aided stained concrete fort worth Assessment (CAA) Computer-Mediated Assessment (CMA) Computer-Based Assessment (CBA) online assessment. Although these terms are commonly tonsil stones used interchangeably, they have distinct meanings. Computer Assisted/Mediated Assessment refers to any application of computers within the assessment process; the role of the computer may be extrinsic or Kent Wedding Photographer intrinsic. It is, therefore, a synonym for e-assessment which also describes a wide range of computer-related activities. Within this definition the computer often plays no part in the actual assessment of responses but merely facilitates the capture and transfer of responses video converter between candidate and human assessor. Computer-Based Assessment refers to assessment which is built around the use of a computer; the use of a computer is always Contractor Marketing intrinsic to this type of assessment. This can relate to assessment of IT practical skills or more commonly the on screen presentation of knowledge tests. The defining ricostruzione unghie factor is that the computer is marking or assessing the responses provided from candidates. Online assessment refers to assessment activity which tinnitus treatment requires the use of the internet. In reality few high stakes assessment sessions are actually conducted online in real time but the transfer of data prior to and after the assessment stuffing envelopes session is conducted via the internet. There are many examples of practice and diagnostic tests being run real time over the internet. Educational technology (also called learning technology) is the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using and managing appropriate technological processes and resources.”The term educational technology is often associated with, and tourbillon watches encompasses, instructional theory and learning theory. While 18th birthday ideas instructional technology covers the processes and systems of learning and instruction, educational technology includes other wedding photographer Hampshire systems used in the process of developing human capability. Educational Technology includes, but is not limited to, software, hardware, as well as Internet applications and activities. But there is still debate on what these terms mean. Educational technology is fish oil most simply and comfortably defined as an array of tools that might prove helpful in advancing student learning. Educational Technology relies on a broad definition of the word “technology”. Technology can refer to material objects of use to humanity, such as machines or hardware, but it can also encompass loans bad credit broader themes, including systems, methods of organization, and techniques. Some modern tools include but are not limited to overhead projectors, laptop computers, and bedroom furniture calculators. Newer tools such as “smartphones” and games (both online and offline) are beginning to draw serious attention for their learning potential. Those who employ educational technologies to explore ideas and communicate meaning are learners or teachers. Consider the Handbook of Human Performance Technology.The word technology for the sister fields of vinyl wall lettering Educational and Human Performance Technology means “applied science.” In other words, any valid and reliable process or procedure that is derived from basic research using the “scientific method” is considered a “technology.” Educational or Human Performance Technology may be based purely on algorithmic or heuristic processes, but neither necessarily implies physical video interviewing technology. The word technology, comes from the Greek “Techne” which means craft or art. Another word “technique”, with the same origin, also may be used when healthy living considering the field Educational technology. So Educational technology may be extended to include the techniques of the educator. A classic example of an Educational Psychology text is Bloom’s 1956 good health book, Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Bloom’s taxonomy is helpful when designing learning activities to keep in mind what is expected of—and what are the learning goals for—learners. However, Bloom’s work does not explicitly deal with educational technology hard money lenders per se and is more concerned with pedagogical strategies. According to some, an Educational Technologist is someone who transforms basic educational and psychological research into an evidence-based CD replication applied science (or a technology) of learning or instruction. Educational Technologists typically have a graduate degree (Master’s, Doctorate, Ph.D., or D.Phil.) in a field related to Portable Stage educational psychology, educational media, experimental psychology, cognitive psychology or, more purely, in the fields of Educational, Instructional or Human Performance nature sounds Technology or Instructional (Systems) Design. But few of those listed below as theorists would ever use the term “educational technologist” as a term to wrinkle cream describe themselves, preferring terms like “educator”.[citation needed] The transformation of educational technology from a cottage industry to a profession is discussed by Shurville, Browne, and Whitaker.  Three main theoretical schools or philosophical frameworks have been present in the educational technology literature. These are Behaviorism, Cognitivism and Constructivism. Each of these schools of thought are still present in today’s literature but have evolved as the Psychology literature has Groom Speeches evolved. This theoretical framework was developed in the early 20th century with the animal learning experiments of Ivan Pavlov, Edward Thorndike, el nido short breaks Edward C. Tolman, Clark L. Hull, B.F. Skinner and many others. Many psychologists used these theories to describe and experiment with human Best Man Speeches learning. While still very useful this philosophy of learning has lost favor with many educators. B.F. Skinner wrote extensively on improvements of teaching based on his functional analysis of Verbal Behavior, and wrote “The Technology of Teaching” an attempt to dispel the myths underlying contemporary education, as well as wholesale silver jewellery promote his system he called programmed instruction. Ogden Lindsley also developed the Celeration learning system similarly based on behavior analysis but quite different from USPS change of address Keller’s and Skinner’s models. Cognitive science has changed how educators view learning. Since the very early beginning of the Cognitive Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s, learning theory has undergone a great deal of change. Much fat burning furnace of the empirical framework of Behaviorism was retained even though a new paradigm had begun. Cognitive theories look beyond behavior to explain brain-based scholarships for moms learning. Cognitivists consider how human memory works to promote learning. After memory theories like the Atkinson-Shiffrin memory model and Baddeley’s unlock blackberry 9800 Working memory model were established as a theoretical framework in Cognitive Psychology, new cognitive frameworks of learning began to emerge during the 1970s, 80s, cheap car insurance and 90s. It is important to note that Computer Science and Information Technology have had a major influence on Cognitive Science theory. The Cognitive concepts of working memory (formerly known as short term memory) and long term memory have been table tennis facilitated by research and technology from the field of Computer Science. Another major influence on the field of Cognitive Science is Noam Chomsky. Today researchers are concentrating on topics like Cognitive load and Bali Holiday Packages Information Processing Theory. Constructivism is a learning theory or educational philosophy that many educators began to consider in the 1990s. One of the primary tenets of this philosophy is that learners construct their own meaning the diet solution from new information, as they interact with reality or others with different perspectives. Constructivist learning environments require students to utilize their prior knowledge and experiences to formulate new, related wealthy affiliate forum , and/or adaptive concepts in learning. Under this framework the role of the teacher becomes that of a facilitator, providing guidance so that learners can construct their own knowledge. Constructivist educators must make sure New Orleans Saints Merchandise that the prior learning experiences are appropriate and related to the concepts being taught. Jonassen (1997) suggests “well-structured” learning environments are useful for logo polo shirts novice learners and that “ill-structured” environments are only useful for more advanced learners. Educators utilizing technology when teaching with a constructivist perspective should Business Intelligence Software choose technologies that reinforce prior learning perhaps in a problem-solving environment. Connectivism is “a learning theory for the digital age,” and has been developed by George Siemens and Stephen Downes based on their analysis of the limitations of behaviourism, cognitivism and constructivism to explain the effect technology has had on how we live, how we communicate, and how we learn. Donald G. Perrin, Executive Editor of the International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning says the theory “combines relevant elements of many learning theories, social structures, and technology to create a powerful theoretical construct for learning in the digital age.” Problem Based Learning and Inquiry-based learning are active learning educational technologies used to facilitate learning. Technology which includes physical and process applied science can be incorporated into project, problem, inquiry-based learning as they all have a similar educational philosophy. All three are student centered, ideally involving real-world scenarios in which students are actively engaged in critical thinking activities. The process that students are encouraged to employ (as long as it is based on link building service empirical research) is considered to be a technology. Classic examples of technologies used by teachers and Educational Technologists include Bloom’s Taxonomy and Instructional Design. This is an area where new thinkers are coming to the forefront Bistro MD everyday. Many of the ideas spread from theorists, researchers, and experts through their blogs. Extensive lists of educational bloggers by fat burning furnace review area of interest are available at Steve Hargadon’s “SupportBloggers” site or at the “movingforward” wiki started by Scott McLeod. Many of these blogs are recognized by their peers each year through the edublogger awards.Web 2.0 technologies have contact lenses led to a huge increase in the amount of information available on this topic and the number of educators formally and informally discussing it. Most listed below have been around for more than a decade, however, and few new corporate entertainment thinkers mentioned above are listed here.  Educational technology is intended to improve education over what it would be without technology. Some of the claimed benefits are listed below: Easy-to-access course materials. Instructors can post the course material or important information on a course website, which means students can study at a time and location they prefer and can obtain the study material very quickly Student motivation. Computer-based instruction can give instant feedback to students and explain correct answers. Moreover, a computer is patient and non-judgmental, which can give the student motivation to continue learning. According to James Kulik, who studies the effectiveness of computers used for instruction, students usually learn more in less time when receiving computer-based instruction and they like classes more and develop more positive attitudes toward computers in computer-based classes Wide participation. Learning material can be used for long distance learning and are accessible to a wider audience Improved student writing. It is convenient for students to edit their written work on word processors, which can, in turn, improve the quality of their writing. According to some studies, the students are better at critiquing and editing written work that is exchanged over a computer network with students they know Subjects made easier to learn. Many different types of educational software are designed and developed to help children or teenagers to learn specific subjects. Examples include pre-school software, computer simulators, and graphics software A structure that is more amenable to measurement and improvement of outcomes. With proper structuring it can become easier to monitor and maintain student work while also quickly gauging modifications to the instruction necessary to enhance student learning. Although technology in the classroom does have many benefits, there are clear drawbacks as well. Lack of proper training, limited access to sufficient quantities of a technology, and the extra time required for many implementations of technology are just a few of the reasons that technology is often not used extensively in the classroom. Similar to learning a new task or trade, special training is vital to ensuring the effective integration of classroom technology. Since technology is not the end goal of education, but rather a means by which it can be accomplished, educators must have a good grasp of the technology being used and its advantages over more traditional methods Corporate events. If there is a lack in either of these areas, technology will be seen as a hindrance and not a benefit to the goals of teaching. Another difficulty is introduced when access to a sufficient quantity of a resource is limited. This is often seen when the quantity of computers or digital cameras for classroom use is not enough to meet the needs of an entire classroom. It also occurs in less noticed forms such as limited access for technology exploration because of the high cost of technology and the fear of damages. In other cases, the inconvenience of resource placement is a hindrance, such as having to transport a classroom to a computer lab instead of having in-classroom computer access by means of technology such as laptop carts. Technology implementation can also be time consuming. There may be an initial setup or training time cost inherent in the use of certain technologies. Even with these tasks accomplished, technology failure may occur during the activity and as a result teachers must have an alternative lesson ready. Another major issue arises because of the evolving nature of technology. New resources have to be designed and distributed whenever the technological platform has been changed. Finding quality materials to support classroom objectives after such changes is often difficult even after they exist in sufficient quanitity and teachers must design these resources on their own Research from the Alberta Initiative for School Improvement (AISI)  indicates that inquiry and project-based approaches, combined with a focus on curriculum, effectively supports the infusion of educational technologies into the learning and teaching process.There are many kinds of computer and non-computer technologies currently in use in traditional classrooms. Among these are: Computer in the Classroom: Having a computer in the classroom is an asset to any teacher. With a computer in the classroom, teachers are able to demonstrate a new lesson, present new material, illustrate how to use new programs, and show new websites. Class Website: What better way to display your student’s work, than to create a web page designed just for your class. Once a web page is designed, teachers can post homework assignments, student work, famous quotes, trivia games, and so much more. In current day society, children know how to use the computer and navigate their way through a website, so why not give them one where they can be a published author. Just be careful as most districts maintain strong policies to manage official websites for a school or classroom. Class Blogs and Wikis: These are some of a variety of Web 2.0 tools that are currently being implemented in the classroom. Blogs allow for students to maintain a running dialogue, like a journal, of thoughts, ideas, and assignments that also provide for student comment and reiterative reflection. Wikis are more group focused to allow multiple members of the group to edit a single document and create a truly collaborative and carefully edited finished product. Wireless Classroom Microphones: Noisy classrooms are a daily occurrence, and with the help of microphones, students are able to hear their teachers clearer. Children learn better when they hear the teacher clearly. The benefit for teachers is that they no longer lose their voices at the end of the day. Mobile devices: Mobile devices such as clickers or smartphone can be used to enhance the experience in the classroom by providing the possibility for professors to get feedback. (read more in the article MLearning). SmartBoards: An interactive whiteboard that provides touch control of computer applications. Online Media: Streamed video websites can be utilized to enhance a classroom lesson (e.g. United Streaming, Teacher Tube, etc.) There are many other tools being utilized depending on the local school board and fund availability. These may include: digital cameras, video cameras, interactive whiteboard tools, document cameras, or LCD projectors. In its broadest sense, e-assessment is the use of information technology for any assessment-related activity. This definition embraces a wide range of student activity ranging from the use of a word processor to on-screen testing. Due to its obvious similarity to e-learning, the term e-assessment is becoming widely used as a generic term to describe the use of computers within the assessment process. Specific types of e-assessment include computerized adaptive testing and computerized classification testing. E-assessment can be used to assess cognitive and practical abilities. Cognitive abilities are assessed using e-testing software; practical abilities are assessed using e-portfolios or simulation software. An e-testing system designed to focus on lower level associations comprises two components: (1) an assessment engine; and (2) an item bank. An assessment engine comprises the hardware and software required to create and deliver a test. Most e-testing engines run on standard hardware so the key characteristic is the software’s functionality. There is a wide range of software packages. The software does not include the questions themselves; these are provided by an item bank. Once created, the engine uses the item bank to generate a test. Traditional paper-and-pencil testing is similar, but the test is pulled from the bank at only one time, when it is sent to publishing. The creation of the item bank is more costly and time consuming than the installation and configuration of the assessment engine. This is due to the fact that assessment engines can be bought “off the shelf” whereas an item bank must be developed for each specific application. An e-assessment system designed to focus on more sophisticated forms of knowledge requires some sort of interactive activity and a system for inviting students to reason or solve problems around that activity. One influential program of research is known as Evidence Centered Design, or ECD. ECD involves the use of Bayesian Inference Nets to create a sophisticated model of student cognition, and a set of activities or problems that students work on that allow the system to estimate the individuals understanding of the particular domain. E-assessment is becoming widely used. It has many advantages over traditional (paper-based) assessment. The advantages include: greater storage efficiency – tens of thousands of answer scripts can be stored on a server compared to the physical space required for paper scripts enhanced question styles which incorporate interactivity and multimedia. There are also disadvantages. E-assessment systems are expensive to establish and not suitable for every type of assessment (such as extended response questions). The main expense is not technical; it is the cost of producing high quality assessment items – although this cost is identical when using paper-based assessment. The best examples follow a Formative Assessment structure and are called “Online Formative Assessment”. This involves making an initial formative assessment by sifting out the incorrect answers theatre breaks. The author/teacher will then explain what the pupil should have done with each question. It will then give the pupil at least one practice at each slight variation of sifted out questions. This is the formative learning stage. The next stage is to make a Summative Assessment by a new set of questions only covering the topics previously taught. Some will take this even further and repeat the cycle such as BOFA Online 11 plus papers which is aimed at the eleven plus exam set in the UK. In order to create a mechanism for the sharing of high quality assessment items, global standards have emerged. The IMS Question and Test Interoperability specification (QTI) provides a common format for describing and distributing question items across disparate systems. An area of E-assessment that has seen extensive growth in recent years is the use of hand held student response devices (often referred to as clickers or voting devices). These allow a teacher to carry out whole group assessments, polls and surveys quickly and easily. They use either radio or infra red to communicate with a central hub that is usually attached to a computer. In many school classrooms these devices may also be used in combination with an interactive whiteboard. Various terms are used to describe the use of a computer for assessment purposes. These include: Computer-Assisted Assessment or Computer-Aided Assessment (CAA) Computer-Mediated Assessment (CMA) Computer-Based Assessment (CBA) online assessment. Although these terms are commonly used interchangeably, they have distinct meanings. Computer Assisted/Mediated Assessment refers to any application of computers within the assessment process; the role of the computer may be extrinsic or intrinsic. It is, therefore, a synonym for e-assessment which also describes a wide range of computer-related activities. Within this definition the computer often plays no part in the actual assessment of responses but merely facilitates the capture and transfer of responses between candidate and human assessor Debt recovery. Computer-Based Assessment refers to assessment which is built around the use of a computer; the use of a computer is always intrinsic to this type of assessment. This can relate to assessment of IT practical skills or more commonly the on screen presentation of knowledge tests. The defining factor is that the computer is marking or assessing the responses provided from candidates. Online assessment refers to assessment activity which requires the use of the internet. In reality few high stakes assessment sessions are actually conducted online in real time but the transfer of data prior to and after the assessment session is conducted via the internet. There are many examples of practice and diagnostic tests being run real time over the internet.